The Pilgrims and the Mayflower Compact

Summary: The Pilgrims were Separatists, not Puritans. Includes: Two versions of the Mayflower Compact, old and modern - Names of the Pilgrims with background information - Dates of main events - The first Thanksgiving - Graphic cutaway of the Mayflower ship.

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Copyright © 2000-2008 by Richard Clark for non-commercial educational use.

8 By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went.
9 By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise:
11 Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child when she was past age, because she judged him faithful who had promised.
13 These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.
(Hebrews 11:8,9,11,13 - Author's Version 1611AV)

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The Pilgrims who came to America in 1620, were mainly a group of Christians called Separatists. Because of the persecution of Separatists by the Church-State system of government in England, one group of Separatists had moved to the United States of the Netherlands in 1608, but became dissatisfied with conditions there and decided their hope lay in the new land of America.

In 1620, on July 12th (O.S. = Old Style), they left the Netherlands with 35 members of their congregation and their leaders William Bradford and William Brewster aboard the ship Speedwell, and at Southhampton, joined up with other Englishmen who had hopes of bettering their lives in the new world. The London Company granted them the right to establish a settlement in Virginia.

A total of about 120 passengers boarded both the Speedwell and the chartered vessel Mayflower, and left Southampton on August 5th (O.S.), but had to return to England twice because of dangerous leaks on the Speedwell.

Finally, at the English port of Plymouth, late in the sailing season, after much disputing about what they should do, some of the passengers from the Speedwell were transferred to the Mayflower, and on September 6th (O.S.), the Pilgrims, 102 men, women, and children, (only 37 [or 45] of whom were from the original Separatist congregation,) left England on their historic voyage across the turbulent ocean.

During the voyage, the Mayflower was badly rattled by storms with many leaks in the upper parts of the ship. One of the main beams in mid ship bowed and cracked, causing great distress, until a screw jack brought by the passengers was used to raise the beam and the carpenter supported it with a post and other timber. John Howland, ancestor of former President George Bush, [and later President George W. Bush] was nearly lost in one of the storms.

The exhausting voyage took 66 days and claimed 2 lives. However, they still arrived with 102 souls, since a boy, "Oceanus Hopkins", was born at sea in route, and another, "Peregrine White", was born as the ship anchored at Cape Cod.

The Pilgrims had planned to settle  somewhere  near the Hudson River, in the area of their grant from the Virginia Company of London (aka. London Company), but the LORD in his providence sent winds that urged the Mayflower north, where they sighted Cape Cod, November 9th (O.S.).

"Being thus arrived in a good harbor and brought safe to land, they fell upon their knees and blessed the God of heaven, who had brought them over the vast and furious ocean, and delivered them from all the perils and miseries thereof, again to set their feet on the firm and stable earth, their proper element." (--William Bradford)

After anchoring inside the tip of Cape Cod (in Provincetown harbor) The Mayflower Compact, "the first plan for a self-determining government in America", was drawn up and signed by 41 men aboard the Mayflower on November 11th, 1620 (O.S.).

This agreement was thought necessary because there were rumors that some of the non-Separatists, called "Strangers," among the passengers would defy the Pilgrims if they landed in a place other than that specified in the land grant they had received from the London Company. The compact became the basis of a Body Politick (temporary government) in the Plymouth Colony. After it was signed, the Pilgrims elected John Carver as their first governor. They were to meet in a yearly "General Court to elect the governor and assistants, enact laws, and levy taxes."

Being weary of life aboard ship, the Pilgrims were anxious to explore the country for a place to settle down. During the weeks that followed, one exploring party working its way around Cape Cod Bay had to take refuge on an island in Plymouth harbor during a blinding snow storm.

On December 11th (O.S.), they landed at Plymouth where there was some cleared land, a stream with clear pure water, and a high hill that could be fortified. There had previously been a (Native American)  Indian  village there, but a plague in 1617 had wiped them out.

Several days later, on December 16th (O.S.), the Mayflower sailed across to the rocky western shore of Cape Cod Bay in southeastern Massachusetts, and dropped anchor in Plymouth Harbor.

Although Christopher Jones, the captain of the Mayflower had previously threatened to leave the Pilgrims unless they quickly found a place to land, he remained, with his ship, at Plymouth during that devasting first winter of 1620-21, during which about half of the colonists died. (After the winter was past in 1621, the Mayflower finally departed from Plymouth on April 5th (O.S.), and returned to England.)

"Plymouth Colony and the Pilgrims have become for all Americans a lesson of how a people with little more than courage, perseverance, and hard work could build themselves a home in a hostile world. The Pilgrims laid the basis for the town meeting form of government, and for the Congregational Church."

Life in the New World was not easy. Lack of proper food, exhausting work, and extreme weather lowered their resistance to sickness, and there was much suffering and death. They lost 52 members, including their governor John Carver. Thirteen of the twenty-four heads of families died, as well as fourteen of the eighteen mothers. By spring only a few able-bodied men and boys were left to plant crops.

Even these men, who had been  town laborers  in Holland for years, might have been lost if it had not been for the help (by the providence of God) of two Indians, Samoset and Squanto, who had been a captive on an English vessel and had learned English. As the story goes, "One spring morning, an Indian walked into the little village, and introduced himself to the startled people as Samoset. Two weeks later he returned with Squanto. The two Indians introduced the Pilgrims to Massasoit, the sachem, or chief, of the Wampanoag tribe that controlled all southeastern Massachusetts. An exchange of gifts and hospitality resulted in a peace that lasted over 50 years. The Pilgrims, under Squanto's direction, caught "alewives" (a fish in the herring family) and used them as fertilizer in planting corn, pumpkins, and beans. They hunted and fished for food." (--World Book Ency.)

Another factor in the survival of the Plymouth Colony was the leadership of William Bradford, who served as governor for 30 years (yearly elections,) and combined firmness with both tact and common sense. (He and several other leaders later assumed the total debt of the colonists to the London backers, and then divided the land and goods equally among the inhabitants.)

The LORD Jesus Christ so wonderfully blessed their first harvest, that Governor Bradford declared a special celebration. The Pilgrims invited their Indian friends to join them in a three-day festival in the Autumn of 1621 in what we now call the first Thanksgiving.

"As ye have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk ye in him: Rooted and built up in him, and stablished in the faith, as ye have been taught, abounding therein with thanksgiving." (Colossians 2:6,7)

"In every thing give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you." (1Thessalonians 5:18)

The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with us all. Amen. --Richard Clark

This Page = 3 Pilgrims & the Mayflower Compact

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It was not until 1793 that the name "Pilgrims" was applied to them. In that year, on the celebration of "Forefathers Day" at Plymouth, the "Reverend" Chandler Robbins, who preached the sermon, used the term. He had gone through the church records and had found a copy of William Bradford's description of the departure from Leiden. Bradford told of the reluctance of "the saints" to leave the city and then said, "but they knew they were _pilgrims_ and looked not much on those things, but lifted up their eyes to the heavens, their dearest country, and quieted their spirits." In his sermon Robbins applied the name Pilgrims to the Forefathers and the name thus gained currency. (--Collier's Ency.)
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Separatists, the name applied to those who wanted to "separate" from the established church of England and set up independent churches of their own. They were also known as "Brownists," since they were followers of Robert Browne (c.1550-1633). He said no state could establish a true church; the only true church was a willing association of people who believed alike. When such a group organized a church they drew up a church covenant or compact, which they signed, and elected their own pastor. They asked to be let alone, and were willing to let other people alone. Anglicans, Puritans, and Catholics all regarded them as radicals, with the result that life in England was very uncomfortable for them. Some Separatist church groups moved to Holland, where there was toleration. It was one such Separatist group that emigrated to America and settled Plymouth Colony in 1620. (--Collier Ency.)
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United States. That's right. At the time the Pilgrims came to America, the united provinces of the Netherlands were called "The United States" by the Pilgrims, as Edward Winslow said, in Hypocrisie Unmasked (1646)-- "Tis true, that that poor persecuted flock of Christ, by the malice and power of the late Hierarchy were driven to Leyden in Holland, there to bear witness in their practice to the Kingly Office of Christ Jesus in his Church: and there lived together ten years under the United States, with much peace and liberty:" That "ten years" of "peace" was during the "Twelve Year Truce" in the midst of the "Eighty Years War" (1568-1648) following the Dutch Revolt led by William of Orange, wherein seven (Low Country) provinces separated from the Hapsburg (catholic church/state inquisition) system and formed a Republic with their declaration of independence in 1581. When the Pilgrims left, the Eighty Years War resumed, until the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.
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Old Style dating was from the older "Julian" calendar. Catholic countries under Gregory the 13th switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar system in 1582, when October 4th was followed by October 15th, dropping 10 days. The Pilgrims in the 1600's were still using the "Old Style" Julian calendar. AMERICANS changed from the Julian to the ENGLISH calendar system in 1752, under non-catholic King GEORGE II, and lost ELEVEN days when September 2nd was followed by September 14th. And New Year's day was also changed from March 25th to January 1st. To convert Pilgrim's "Old Style" dates to the modern American ENGLISH calendar, simply add 10 days.
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Squanto [skwahn'-toh] Squanto, c.1580-1622, a Pawtuxet Indian later associated with the Wampanoag after his tribe was decimated by plague, was seized (1614) by a ship's captain and taken to Spain as a slave. He went from there to England and finally back (1619) to North America, where he was employed by the governor of Newfoundland. Squanto was later brought to Plymouth, where he taught the colonists to improve their crops by using fish fertilizer, but it has been questioned whether this was an Indian method or something Squanto had learned abroad. He served as interpreter at the 1621 treaty between the colonists and Massasoit. Soon after, he died of a disease that he had contracted while guiding Gov. William Bradford's expedition across Cape Cod. (--Grolier Ency.)
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Massasoit [mas-uh-soyt'] Massasoit (meaning "great sachem"), d. 1662, was the name used by early English colonists for the principal leader of the Wampanoag tribe, traditional inhabitants of present-day Massachusetts and eastern Rhode Island. His real name was Wawmegin, or "Yellow Feather." Introduced to the colonists by the Abnaki leader Samoset, Massasoit remained friendly and accommodating to the newcomers throughout his lifetime. (--Grolier Ency.)
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Wampanoag [wahm-puh-noh'-ag] The Wampanoag, a North American Indian tribe of Eastern Algonquian linguistic stock, traditionally inhabited the territory around Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island and Massachusetts. A horticultural people, during the early 17th century they occupied approximately 30 villages in the region. Their leader Massasoit welcomed the English during this period and remained at peace with them until his death (1661). By that time the Wampanoag had suffered grave privations, including epidemics that took most of the population. When Massasoit's son Metacomet succeeded his father, he organized a major intertribal coalition and a war, lasting from 1675 to 1676, the purpose of which was to kill or drive away the English settlers (see King Philip's War). Metacomet and most of the chiefs were killed, and the Wampanoag were nearly exterminated. Except for a few villages that had remained at peace, the surviving Wampanoag took refuge among other tribes. One village, on Martha's Vineyard, persisted and has retained its identity to the present day. (--Grolier Ency.)
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Plymouth - This region had been called Plymouth on John Smith's map of New England, drawn in 1614. Plymouth Plantation was the second permanent English settlement in America. (The Pilgrims crossed the seas from Plymouth to Plymouth. :)
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Virginia included more coastal land than the present day "state" of Virginia. The land of the Virginia Company of London (aka. London Company) stretched along most of the eastern seaboard and included the Hudson River area where the Pilgrims had intended to settle, and the Plymouth Bay area where they ended up. Therefore the expression "Northerne parts of Virginia" in the Mayflower Compact below is historically correct.
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The Mayflower Compact

The original document has not survived, but this version of the Compact is found in William Bradford's history Of Plimoth Plantation: This second version of the Compact is a modernized version with spelling and grammar updates:
In ye name of god Amen· We whofe names are vnderwriten, the Loyall subjecTs of our dread fouraigne Lord King James by ye grace of god, of great britaine, franc, & Ireland king, defender of ye faith, &c

Haueing vndertaken, for ye glorie of god, and aduancemente of ye chrisTian ^faith and honour of our king & countrie, a uoyage to plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of Virginia· Doe by thefe prefents solemnly & mutualy in ye prefence of god, and one of another, couenant, & combine our felues togeather into a ciuill body politick, for ourye better ordering, & preferuation & fur= therance of ye ends aforefaid; and by vertue hearof to enacte, constitute, and frame fhuch just & equall Lawes, ordinances, Acts, constitutions, & offices, from time to time, as fhall be thought most meete & conuenient for ye generall good of ye colonie: vnto which we promife all due submiffion and obedience.

In witnes whereof we haue herevnder subfcribed our names at cap= codd ye ·11· of Nouember, in ye year of ye raigne of our soueraigne Lord king James of England, france, & Ireland ye eighteenth and of Scotland ye fiftie fourth. Ano: Dom ·1620· |

In the name of God, Amen:

We, whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and the honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia:

Do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and of one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politick, for our better ordering and preservation, and furtherance of the aforesaid ends;

And by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.

In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the 11th of November, in the reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620.

Signers of the Mayflower Compact

John Carver, William Bradford, Edward Winslow, William Brewster, Isaac Allerton, Miles Standish, John Alden, Samuel Fuller, Christopher Martin, William Mullins, William White, Richard Warren, John Howland, Stephen Hopkins, Edward Tilly, John Tilly, Francis Cooke, Thomas Rogers, Thomas Tinker, John Ridgdale, Edward Fuller, John Turner, Francis Eaton, James Chilton, John Crackstone, John Billington, Moses Fletcher, John Goodman , Digery Priest, Thomas Williams, Gilbert Winslow, Edmund Margeson, Peter Brown, Richard Britteridge, George Soule, Richard Clarke, Richard Gardiner, John Allerton, Thomas English, Edward Doten, Edward Leister

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The Honored 102. William Bradford, second governor of Plymouth, wrote a history of the Mayflower adventure. He listed the passengers as follows:

[Children "put to" households were adopted or Foster children.]
[Underlined names were signers of the Mayflower Compact.]
[Blue Italic names were from the Leiden Separatist contingent.]
[People in Bold type died before the First Thanksgiving.]
[[Square bracket] number of names per line.]

[8] Mr. John Carver; Kathrine, his wife; Desire Minter; & 2. man-servants, John Howland, Roger Wilder; William Latham, a boy; & a maid servant, & a child yt [that] was put to him, called Jasper More.
[6] Mr. William Brewster; Mary, his wife; with 2. sons, whose names were Love & Wrasling; and a boy was put to him called Richard More; and another of his brothers. The rest of his children were left behind, & came over afterwards.
[5] Mr. Edward Winslow; Elizabeth, his wife; & 2 men servants, caled Georg Sowle and Elias Story; also a little girle was put to him caled Ellen, the sister of Richard More.
[2] William Bradford, and Dorothy, his wife; having but one child, a sone, left behind, who came afterward.
[6] Mr. Isaack Allerton, and Mary, his wife; with 3. children, Bartholmew, Remember, & Mary; and a servant boy, John Hooke.
[2] Mr. Samuell Fuller, and a servant, caled William Butten. His wife was left behind, & a child, which came afterwards.
[2] John Crakston, and his sone, John Crakston.
[2] Captin Myles Standish, and Rose, his wife.
[4] Mr. Christopher Martin, and his wife, and 2. servants, who were Salomon Prower [Martin] and John Langemore.
[5] Mr. William Mullines, and his wife, and 2. children, Joseph & Priscila; and a servant, Robart Carter.
[6] Mr. William White, and Susana, his wife, and one sone, caled Resolved, and one borne a shipbord, caled Peregriene; & 2. servants, named William Holbeck & Edward Thomson.
[8] Mr. Steven Hopkins, & Elizabeth, his wife, and 2. children, caled Giles, and Constanta, a doughter, both by a former wife; and 2. more by this wife, caled Damaris & Oceanus; the last was borne at sea; and 2. servants, caled Edward Doty and Edward Litster.
[1] Mr. Richard Warren; but his wife and children were lefte behind, and came afterwards.
[4] John Billinton, and Elen, his wife; and 2. sones, John & Francis.
[4] Edward Tillie, and Ann, his wife; and 2. children that were their cossens, Henery Samson and Humillity Coper.
[3] John Tillie, and his wife; and Elizabeth, their doughter.
[2] Francis Cooke, and his sone John. But his wife & other children came afterwards.
[2] Thomas Rogers, and Joseph, his sone. His other children came afterwards.
[3] Thomas Tinker, and his wife, and a sone.
[2] John Rigdale, and Alice, his wife.
[3] James Chilton, and his wife, and Mary, their doughter. They had an other doughter, yt [that] was married, came afterwards.
[3] Edward Fuller, and his wife, and Samuell, their sonne.
[3] John Turner, and 2. sones. He had a doughter came some years after to Salem, wher she is now living.
[3] Francis Eaton, and Sarah, his wife, and Samuell, their sone, a yong child.
[10] Moyses Fletcher, John Goodman, Thomas Williams, Digerie Preist, Edmond Margeson, Peter Browne, Richard Britterige, Richard Clarke, Richard Gardenar, Gilbart Winslow.
[1] John Alden was hired for a  cooper, at South-Hampton, wher the ship  victuled; and being a hopfull yong man, was much desired, but left to his owne liking to go or stay when he came here; but he stayed, and maryed here.
[2] John Allerton and Thomas Enlish were both hired, the later to goe  mr  of a shalop here, and ye [the] other was reputed as one of ye [the] company, but was to go back (being a seaman) for the help of others behind. But they both dyed here, before the shipe returned.
[2] There were allso other 2. seamen hired to stay a year here in the country, William Trevore, and one Ely. But when their time was out, they both returned.
These, being aboute a hundred sowls, came over in this first ship; and began this worke, which God of his goodnes hath hithertoo blesed; let his holy name have ye [the] praise.

[102 plus the 2 ship born would be 104.]

Not counting "William Trevore and one Ely", the two seamen who returned, we have "aboute a hundred sowls" initially in the first ship. Bradford elsewhere says: "Of these one hundred persons who came over in this first ship together, the greatest half died in the general mortality, and most of them in two or three months' time." The "greatest half" would then be 51 out of 100 that died the first season.

"And in Three Months past, Dies Half our Company; the greatest Part in the Depth of Winter, wanting Houses and other Comforts, being infected with the Scurvy & other Diseases, which their long Voyage and unaccommodate Condition brought upon them: so as there Die sometimes 2 or 3 a Day: of 100 Persons scarce 50 remain: the Living scarce able to Bury the Dead: The Well not sufficient to tend the Sick: there being in their time of greatest Distress but 6 or 7, who spare no Pains to help them: 2 of the 7 [helpers] were Mr. Brewster their Reverend Elder, and Mr. Standish their Captain... The like Disease fell also among the Sailors; so as almost Half their Company also Die before they sail."

51 Deaths: 27 Men, 14 Women, 8 Boys, 2 Girls.

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Thanksgiving Day is a yearly holiday celebrated in the United States on the fourth Thursday in November. The "first Thanksgiving", three days of prayer and feasting, was celebrated by the Plymouth colonists in 1621 (somewhere between Sept.21 and Nov.9) to give thanks for their first harvest and for surviving the first terrible Massachusetts winter. The first national Thanksgiving Day, proclaimed by President George Washington, was celebrated on Nov. 26, 1789. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln made Thanksgiving an annual holiday to be commemorated on the last (which would sometimes be the 5th) Thursday in November. FDR changed it to the 3rd Thursday, but Congress in 1941 settled Thanksgiving Day on the 4th Thursday in November.

The First Thanksgiving described: "Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after have a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruit of our labors; they four in one day killed as much fowl, as with a little help beside, served the company almost a week, at which time amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest King Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain, and others. And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty."
"We entertain them familiarly in our houses, and they as friendly bestowing their venison on us. They are a people without any religion or knowledge of God, yet very trusty, quick of apprehension, ripe-witted, just." --from Edward Winslow's letter to a friend in England, dated (O.S.) 11th of December, 1621. He makes a CORRECTION in his 1624 book, Good News from New England, in the 7th Chapter:
"And first, whereas myself and others, in former Letters (which came to the Press against my will and knowledge) wrote, that the Indians about us are a people without any Religion, or knowledge of any God, therein I erred, though we could then gather no better:"
[In that book he further describes their religion and customs.]
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The Mayflower. Picture (c)1999

Cut-away view of the Mayflower 
showing the cramped quarters of Pilgrims.

Not shown in the picture is the partly taken apart "Shallop" (aka. Dinghy or Sloop, with both "sails" and "oars",) which was stored between decks: "Monday, the 13th of November, we unshipped our shallop and drew her on land, to mend and repair her, having been forced to cut her down in bestowing her betwixt the decks, and she was much opened with the people's lying in her, which kept us long there, for it was 16 or 17 days before the carpenter had finished her." They began using the Shallop after 14 days, on the 27th of November, but then spent 2 more days in repairs. The Mayflower's "Long Boat" was used to ferry people between the ship and shore, (Men to gather firewood, and Women to do laundry:) but sometimes in the extreme cold, the people had to wade knee and sometimes mid-thigh deep in the water between the boat and shore. (Water conducts heat away from a body  25  times faster than air.)
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John Howland's Stormy Mishap: "In sundry of these storms the winds were so fierce, and the seas so high, as they could not bear a knot of sail... And in one of them, as they thus lay at hull, in a mighty storm, a lusty young man (called John Howland) coming upon some occasion above the gratings, was, with a seele of the ship thrown into the sea; but it pleased God that he caught hold of the topsail halyards, which hung overboard, and ran out at length; yet he held his hold (though he was sundry fathoms under water) till he was hauled up by the same rope to the brim of the water, and then with a boat hook and other means got into the ship again, and his life saved; and though he was something ill with it, yet he lived many years after, and became a profitable member both in church and commonwealth." (--from Of Plimouth Plantation by William Bradford)

Former President George Bush was a descendent of John Howland by way of Hope Howland, Hope Chipman, Hope Huckins, Hannah Nelson, Jabez Wood, Joanna Wood, Sarah Horton, Betsy Wheeler, Elizabeth Pierce, Mary Butler, Flora Sheldon, & Prescott Bush. [Ref: Gary Boyd Roberts. "The Mayflower Descents of President George Herbert Walker Bush, First Lady Barbara Pierce Bush, and Vice President James Danforth Quayle." The Mayflower Descendant, 41:1-7.] Barbara Bush was a descendent of Mayflower passenger Henry Samson. Former vice-President Dan Quayle (spelled with an "e" on the end :) was a descendent of both Myles Standish and John Alden. Other Presidents descended from Mayflower passengers: John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Zachary Taylor, Ulysses S. Grant, James A. Garfield, & Franklin D. Roosevelt (descended from 7 Mayflower passengers including Howland). Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford are both descendants of Henry Howland, John Howland's brother.

For further info about presidential ancestry, (including the fact that George W. Bush is also descended from Mayflower pilgrim Francis Cooke! :) see LINK to Caleb Johnson's Mayflower web site at bottom of this page.
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References: 1993 Grolier Encyclopedia; 1963 Collier's Encyclopedia; 1960 World Book Encyclopedia. Of Plimouth Plantation by William Bradford. Bible quotes from the Authorized 1611 King James Version.
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Read about Richard's amazing Thanksgiving encounter in Death Hill.

Send E-mail Comments to Richard.

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LINK to Caleb Johnson's Mayflower Web Site

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